No. 10 May 2007
New Delta Trike - the Anura
It is now over a year since I wrote my last newsletter, so this one is long overdue. As you can imagine a LOT of things have happened at Greenspeed over that time. The main news it that the
Series II GT3/5 trikes are now in production, along with our new delta trike, code named the Frog, and now called the Anura, after over a year of development,
and working through six prototypes. The other big news is we now have a new distributor in Europe which will lower our European prices, and make Greenspeed trikes more readily available in Europe.
Hope you enjoy this Newsletter, and please feel free to give me
Ian Sims CEO
- New GT3/5 Series
- New Greenspeed
Greenspeed European Distributor
- New Power Assistance
- Power Measuring
Please click any picture for a
GT3/5 Series II Trikes
New NSR Steering Geometry
People new to our trikes sometimes have problems with the sensitivity of the steering, and people changing to trikes from bikes sometimes habitually use only one brake lever which can give problems at high speed. Braking one front wheel will tend to steer a trike or car in that direction, even if it has Centre Point Steering, so that there is no reaction through the steering, and steering does not move in that direction. So how can this problem be overcome? We spent a lot of time testing different prototypes, with a whole range of different riders, and then decided to arrange the steering geometry so that when riders braked only one wheel, the steering automatically turned in the opposite direction! This is known as Negative Scrub Radius, or NSR. The effect is so subtle that the rider is not aware of what is happening, except that the trike now continues
in a straight line when only one brake lever is used. This is better than linking both levers together, as it enables the rider to brake with either hand, while
signalling with the other, and gives the power of both hands for emergency braking.
Normally the slower and less sensitive the steering ratio, the larger the turning circle, making it harder and slower to
manoeuvre in tight spaces. However, with the NSR steering we found a way to BOTH reduce the "nervousness" of the steering, and at the same time, REDUCE the turning circle! So newcomers will feel comfortable with the new steering at once, and be pleasantly surprised at the small turning circle.
These changes required completely new frames and new kingpins. So the opportunity was taken to improve other things as well. The kingpins are now of a simpler design, so that they can be removed and adjusted with a 5 mm hex key, instead of needing a 24 mm wrench. Likewise the mirror mounts are now clamp-on instead of screw-on, and only need the 5 mm key. The other good news is that the front fenders/mudguards from the Series I GT3s will fit straight on, so dealers will not have to stock another set of fenders/mudguards.
The rear of the frame has been dropped slightly to
give more chain clearance, and the rear fork cross piece has been narrowed to improve the appearance of the rear end and reduce weight. The crank extension is now black
anodised alloy with etched graduations on the bottom to make it easier to set up for different leg lengths.
The colours have been upgraded to a candy apple metallic to reflect the quality of the trikes and the latest Tiagra two piece cranks are used, see picture. Finally, despite numerous cost increases, we have been able to keep the Series II price increase down to only $150 per trike, so the MSRP for the base model Series II GT3 is only $2,745USD.
Production of the first 100 trikes has now been completed and are on the water to our USA distributor in Illinois. Thus, delivery to dealers should start in June.
New Greenspeed Delta Trike
Design Rational & Standard Equipment.
We have been aware for some time that there is a demand for a high quality, user friendly, recreational trike for older and handicapped riders who are unable to get up and down from our low trikes, and from people who would like to ride higher in traffic. When I toured our
Greenspeed Dealers in the USA in 2004, I found the delta trikes on offer were very heavy and had poor steering and braking. The dealers said they wanted something better for their customers. So I designed a rather unique higher trike for this market and Paul and Michael spent some time developing and improving the steering to make it a "no brainer". The reason we have used the one wheel front and two wheels rear format (delta) for this trike, is that it avoids having the cross member in front of the seat, making it easier to sit down, and the wheel in front of the rider gives a feeling of greater protection when riding in traffic. It also resembles the traditional upright trike, making people feel more comfortable with this format. Some of the problems reported with deltas on the market were the front wheel skating sideways on steep hills and poor braking. Thus we have fitted a differential as standard equipment, as well as three wheel disc brakes, to
eliminate these problems. The differential balances the drive to each rear wheel, so that the trike will turn easily in either direction, and track straight up steep hills. The two rear brakes are controlled by the right hand lever, and the front by the left, so the braking can be modulated to obtain maximum braking on any surface. We have used under seat steering to put the hands in the most natural and ergonomic place, beside your hips. This avoids the cheaper "Ape Hanger" handle bars, with the "sit up and beg" riding position and having to swing the bars in the opposite direction to which you want to go.
Having found both an increase in performance with the lighter weight of the 16" wheels, and
a reduction in overall size and weight of the trike, we have used 16" for the the delta with our 16" x 1 1/2" Scorcher tyres. These tyres were 1st used on our
GT3 Folding Trikes and have proven to have both a lower rolling resistance, and a better ride than most 20" tyres.
To improve ground clearance we are fitting the Schlumpf Speed-Drive as standard equipment. This two speed bottom bracket enables a short cage rear derailleur to be used to increase the ground clearance at the rear axle. It is used with an eight speed free-wheel giving 16 speeds, but with the same range as a 24 speed
system. As the low ratio is 1:1 and the high ratio 1: 1.65, this gives less overlapped and redundant gears. It also allows you to shift while stationary. So if you have to stop quickly, and have not had time to wind the derailleur gears down, you can shift to low in the Speed-Drive, to allow an easier take-off. Another advantage is the whole gear range can be moved up or down by replacing just the single chain ring. The Speed Drive is changed by kicking the cranks with the heel, avoiding the need to fit a front derailleur and a front shifter, leaving one of the handle bars free to fit a rear vision mirror, if desired.
We tried using only two brakes on the rear wheels as used by some deltas, but found that the braking was not as good as our other trikes. However when we tried discs on all three wheels, the braking was awesome - even better than our other trikes. So we are fitting the three discs as standard. Having a disc brake can make the wheels more difficult to remove, as sometimes the caliper needs to be removed first. So at the rear of the trike we are using a six-pin drive so the wheel can be removed with one cap screw, leaving the disc brake rotor on the axle. See pic.
We were aware that some people had problems finding space for their trikes, so we have made this trike so it can be parked vertically to take up very little floor space.
The first three Cro Mo prototypes were made here in Oz where the steering geometry was perfected. The
forth prototype was made in aluminium alloy in Taiwan and was shown at the 2006 Interbike show where it attracted a great deal of attention from dealers. It had a round main tube, but in
testing it was found to be too weak, plus if the adjustment clamps were not tight enough, the front section could twist, causing the trike to collapse. So we had a rectangular section tubing designed
and made especially for this trike. This tube is stronger weight for weight than the round tubing in bending, and keeps the front and rear sections in perfect alignment at all times, even when the machine is being adjusted for leg length. It also blends perfectly into head tube giving a neat and clean appearance.
When the second aluminium prototype arrived with the rectangular section tubing, I was quite shocked when I rode it. Being a higher trike, with a more upright seating position than the GT3, I had expected it to be slower, harder to pedal and quite unstable. However it seemed to be just as quick as my GTS!! It was also far more stable than I had expected! In fact, I quite liked it! I can only put the difference between it and the earlier prototypes down to the extra stiffness of the rectangular section main tube. It could also be that using the differential to drive the two wheels instead of one rear wheel, as on our other trikes and most deltas, is more efficient, in the same way as Audi discovered that the their 4WD cars were more fuel efficient than their 2WD cars. This was due to the fact that
there is less stress is going through the driving tyres. In the case of the deltas, there could be an extra bonus with the differential, as with only one wheel drive, the drive would be offset by at over a foot, and this would have to be counteracted by the steering, giving a certain amount of continuous scrub, when under drive. Thus the differential should make it easier to ride and give less tyre wear.
However, we were not happy with the chain routing, and found ten aspects of the trike that we could improve, including a boss in the rear of the frame for towing trailers or other trikes to make an articulated tandem. Other improvements included the fitting of a rigid and removable rear derailleur hanger, fitting of mudguard/fender mounts to the front fork, a more rigid seat mounting and a positive stop for the steering. The brake calipers were also repositioned under the axle to provide protection for the discs when the wheels are removed and to give space to mount the optional rear mudguards/fenders on top of the axle.
And the underside of the front frame is etched
with graduations to make leg length adjustment easier.
Late in March I arrived in Taiwan for the Taipei Bike Show and found the third
aluminium prototype waiting for me with all the improvements we had requested. After the show I rode the trike at the factory. With the factory owner and a number of his staff, I went over it with a fine tooth comb. We found a further ten items which could be improved, including using the Schlumpf Speed Drive to improve the ground clearance, and using clamps on the seat stays to make seat angle adjustment easier, stiffer and faster.
However much time we spend working on new prototypes, it is only possible to go so far, as our customers are bound to use them in ways we could never even dream about. So we have now approved the
Anura, for production, and the first batch of 120 should be finished by the end of June. Having consulted widely with dealers, customers and a special focus group about the Anura as it was being developed, we are now confident that this trike will set new standards for delta trikes worldwide, and be an outstanding addition to the Greenspeed range. So if you have any interest in this type of trike, I suggest you contact your Greenspeed Dealer in July to arrange a test ride. Deliveries should start in August.
26.4" (67 cms)
Wheelbase 64" (163 cms)
Length 81" (205
Width 28.3" (72 cms)
Height 33.3" (85cms)
height 17" (43 cms)
Seat Angle - adjustable
41.5" to 48.5"
Circle 11' 10" (3.6 m)
Boxed size - 49 x 29 x 13" (125
x 73 x 34 cms)
Wheels 16" x 1 1/2", alloy
rims and SS spokes
Tyres Greenspeed Scorcher 16" x 1 1/2'
Cranks Schlumpf Speed-Drive with 38 t ring
13/28, eight speed
Gears - 16 speed from 23" to
Drive - two wheels with differential
Brakes - three wheel Avid disc
- 7005 aluminium alloy
Weight 18.1 kg (40
Price $2,495 USD
Specifications subject to change without notice. Measurements made
with front section extended 4" (10 cms)
One wheel at front for easy mounting
Balanced Two Wheel Drive with Differential
Relaxed Steering Position
16" wheels with Greenspeed "Scorcher" Tyres
Disc Brakes on all Three Wheels!
Easy Wheel Removal
Vertical Parking for Small Apartments!
1st Cro Mo Prototype
1st Aluminium Prototype, at Interbike
2nd Aluminium Prototype with Rec. Section Main Tube
Differential and removable derailleur hanger
Graduations for Leg Length Adjustment
Schlumpf Speed Drive
Ian Riding Final Prototype in Taiwan
Greenspeed European Distributor
The population in Europe exceeds that of the USA, yet our sales in Europe have only been a fraction of that of the USA. I had put that down to the fact that Europeans seemed more conservative than the Americans. However when one of the Euro bike makers started making trikes, copying our folding design, and saying that our trikes were not available in Europe, I began to question the performance of our European distributor, and we started looking for another. Mick asked Peter Eland from Velo Vision and he suggested AZUB Bikes. They were interested, so in November/December last year I visited them in the Czech Republic. I was pleased with what I found. They were a young, growing, enthusiastic company, with a commitment to technical excellence. I liked their bikes and the fact that they rode them, both for development and for promotion. Furthermore they did all the assembly themselves and
they were in an ideal position to import our frames and assemble them, thus avoiding the high duty that was being added to our trikes when they were imported fully assembled. Plus they can keep a stock of frames with less expense than fully assembled trikes, and assemble them as required, giving dealers better delivery times. This also meant that we could sea freight the frames, again lowering the cost of the trikes. Another advantage of this system is that the trikes can be assembled with equipment to suit the local market.
So there is currently a large shipment of frames on the water which should arrive very soon. This includes GTO Touring Trikes, X3 and X5 Sports Trikes, GTT Tandem Trikes and SLR Race Trikes. The GT3/5 Series II frames have been air freighted direct from Taiwan so they they will be available for this Northern Summer Season. We have also sent a large quantity of parts with the frames so that AZUB will be able to supply Greenspeed parts at short notice to European Dealers. This Greenspeed/AZUB partnership was launched at the Spezi Special Bike Show at Germersheim in Germany where we shared a booth, see picture.
If you live in Europe, please visit AZUB at -
for trikes and
AZUB Hardcore Bike
AZUB-Greenspeed stand at Spezi
The 1st Show for this year was the Spezi Bike
Show, see :-
I had planned to take the last prototype to Spezi, but it did not arrive in Oz in time, so I made a box from Corex to take the 2nd prototype and Paul made a small subframe for the end of the box to take four 110 mm inline skate wheels. The box was larger than necessary due a mistake on my part, measuring 126 x 75 x 35cms. However I managed to stick most of my clothes in it and the airline accepted it without a problem, plus the lady behind the counter did not charge me any excess baggage, even though the trike and my baggage combined was well over the 20 kg limit for flights to Europe from Oz. I put the wheels in the box for safe keeping and fitted them at Frankfurt airport. I found it ran nicely across the airport and when I could not find a lift to get up into the train station, I discovered it rode quite well on the escalators! I often have fun with the trains in Germany and this was no exception! I managed to change trains O.K. at Mannheim, with the help of a fellow passenger, to haul the box up a flight of stairs to the other platform. Then a couple of stations later I was wondering why the train was suddenly empty and got going anywhere. Then the guard told me I had to get off and I discovered that the front part of the train had driven off, leaving me behind in the rear section!! I was NOT impressed and let the guard know about it. Of course the platform for the next train was some distance away and I discovered I could actually carry the box up a flight of stairs by myself. The next train was late,
but fortunately some school children helped me get the box up the steps into their carriage and I enjoyed the rest of the trip talking to them about the trikes :-) Then when I got to Germersheim, there were no taxis larger than a car, and I had to wait for the bike shop to come and rescue me with a van!
Beside the booth inside hall 2 with AZUB, we had a tent outside where we offered GS trikes and AZUB bikes for people to test ride as well as having trikes on the official test track. There was a LONG wait for test machines and this arrangement worked quite well, resulting in many more test rides than would have been possible with the official test track alone. As I have no language other than English, I invited Mary Arneson and Dale Hammerschmidt, from Minneapolis, Minnesota USA, and http://www.velomobiling.net/index.php
to help me, as they can both speak German! Thanks Dale and Mary!
There was quite a lot of interest in the Anura -
the new delta, and Mary liked it so much she bought the sample I
took to Spezi, which was the 2nd aluminium prototype.
The next exhibition will be Cycle Vision in Amsterdam, in the Netherlands, June 2nd and
Please see :- http://www.cyclevision.nl/
AZUB Bike will exhibit both Greenspeed Trikes and
At the time of writing the Cycling Australia Bike Show has been cancelled this year due to lack of entries from a number of the larger wholesalers, thus Greenspeed is looking at displaying at other shows. The 1st one in Australia this year will be the
MindBodySpirit Festival in Brisbane, June 29th, 30th and July 1st. We will have at least three trikes on display including the new Anura. The stand number is 145, and on the walls, to increase the energy on the stand, will be Berislava's paintings - see www.berislava.com
If you are in or near Brisbane, please come to the Festival and enjoy yourselves - see http://www.mbsfestival.com.au
Mary riding her Anura at Spezi
Power Assistance System
We have been using the Bionx power assistance kit for sometime now, but while it is an advanced unit with direct drive wheel motor and regenerative braking, we have had some reliability problems. The makers have also declined to provide us with the latest 350 watt units, which many would-be buyers have asked for. Thus we have been testing a new motor system, which puts power into the cranks, and thus the rear gears can be used to give power over a wider speed range than the hub motors. We have found that the Sunstar system gives speeds up to 40 kph with a surprisingly small battery. At the Taipei show I found they had improved the motor over the sample we had on test, so we have asked for a new sample which we are waiting on to test, before we order the 1st batch for sale. See brochure pictured.
Power Measuring Trainer for Trikes
been asked by customers about wind trainers which are suitable for
the 20" and 16" rear wheels on our trikes, so that they
can exercise on their trikes in doors, when the weather is too bad
outside. Also we have had Pedal Prix teams looking for dynameters to
measure the power output from riders, and to train them for the
races. Well, while I was in Taiwan, I came across a very neat
trainer that very accurately stimulates the drag forces on a
trike - the inertia, the wind drag, and the tyre drag. Thus the power
output by the rider can measured just as accurately as on a dyno
costing thousands of dollars! The power is simply measured by a
special cycle computer, which computes the power according to
rear wheel RPM.
It has a large flywheel
which matches the inertia of the trike plus rider, and then the
fluid resistance system accurately matches the cube power
resistance factor due to air resistance from a bike or trike ridden
on the open road. The the pressure of the roller against the tyre
stimulates the tyre rolling resistance of the trike, completing the
sum of all the forces on a bike or trike on level road. For larger
riders there is a larger flywheel available. The trainer comes as
standard to suit 26" and 700c wheels. Wheels smaller than
22" require the optional Small Wheel Adaptor, which suits wheels down
to 16", the size used on our GT3/5 and X-Series trikes.
has been using it for his own training. He says that the ride is
very realistic, and the machine very quiet. It has massive cooling
fins, and will absorb up to 3 kw of power, so there will be no
problem even if you are an Olympic athlete! The power resistance
unit has a magnetic coupling, so that there are no rotating fluid
seals to leak in this unit. The only faults we could find with this
unit was it took some time to change from trike to road bike, and
the web site was very slow to load, so I've copied the manual to our
web site for people who are interested in the nuts and bolts
For more info., please
reviewed and tested this trainer, we can now recommend it, and consider
it to be the best on the market.
Kinetic Trainer with Greenspeed X5 Trike
Resistance Unit with massive cooling fins
69 Mountain Gate Drive
Phone +61 (0) 3 9753 3644
Web Site www.greenspeed.com.au